The term creative industries refers to the economic potential of activities that trade with creativity, knowledge and information. Governments and creative sectors across the world are increasingly recognising its importance as a generator of jobs, wealth and cultural engagement. At the heart of the creative economy are the cultural and creative industries that lie at the crossroads of arts, culture, business and technology. What unifies these activities is the fact that they all trade with creative assets in the form of intellectual property (IP); the framework through which creativity translates into economic value. The UK has the largest creative sector of the European Union. In terms of GDP it is the largest in the world.
Our creative industries are a real success story. They are worth more than £36 billion a year; they generate £70,000 every minute for the UK economy; and they employ 1.5 million people in the UK. According to industry figures, the creative industries account for around £1 in every £10 of the UK’s exports.
The 13 Sectors of the creative industry
3. Art and antiques
6. Designer fashion
7. Film, video and photography
8. Interactive leisure software
10. The performing arts
12. Software and computer services
13. Television and radio
Advertising ranges from creative agencies to sales departments. It is a sector which leads the way with cross-platform innovation as campaigns cross boundaries between TV, radio, print, billboard and interactive media. There are five main departments that advertising falls into Account Services, Creatives, Production, Media and Other Services. Advertising keeps 13,930 companies operating and almost 252,022 individuals (0.87% of the total population) working. The advertising sector is really important to the UK’s economy, as it generates £5.9 billion annually. This is 0.48% of the UK’s total GVA.
Like many creative industries, the architecture sector is made up of a handful of big firms and a very large number of small ones. The sector’s fortunes are closely linked to those of the construction industry. A number of British architects have achieved international reputations. Architecture generates £3.3 billion, 0.26% of the total GVA. It employs 136,534 people, 0.47% of the population. There is 11,320 creative enterprises in the architecture sector.
The Art and antiques sector includes dealers and auctioneers of antique jewellery, paintings, sculpture, furniture, maps, drawings and prints. In Britain, most such businesses are small but some are internationally important. £260 million is generated by this sector, 0.02% of the UK’s GVA. 10,351 people are employed by it and 2760 companies are within it.
Crafts includes work with textiles, ceramics, wood, metal, glass, graphic and leather. Businesses in this field are mostly tiny: 75% are sole traders. Crafts employs 84,224 individuals in the UK, 0.29% of the total population. The businesses in this sector are too small to be picked up in surveys so the amount this sector generates is unknown.
The Design sector is hard to assess as much of it is hidden within other industries. 70% of British design companies were active abroad. Design generates £1.7 billion, 0.14% of the UK’s total GVA. 209,045 people are employed by this sector. There is 13,600 companies contributing to the design sector.
Designer fashion is a relatively small sector, but is highly integrated into the international market – even small fashion businesses look to export their products. The fashion and textiles footprint covers the whole of the supply chain. This is highly complex. It encompasses raw material supply, through all processing stages, to finished goods – as well as ancillary functions such as design, trading, wholesaling, converting and support services. Designer fashion generates the lowest amount in the creative industries, £120 million which is 0.01% of the UK’s total GVA. This sector provides jobs for 18,409 individuals across 900 different companies.
Film, video and Photography produces £3 billion. The UK has a number of successful home-grown producers, but the Hollywood studios dominate the British market. The number of films produced in Britain, and their box-office returns, fluctuates considerably from year to year. The film industry is seen as six different component parts: Development, Production, Facilities, Distribution, Exhibition and Export. Photo imaging is broadly divided into the following categories: Image producers, Photo retail, Picture libraries and agencies, Manufacturers and Support services. It provides 67,250 people with jobs, 0.23% of the UK’s total population. 10,150 companies provide for this sector.
The Interactive leisure software sector principally consists of computer and video games, but also includes some educational and reference material. British gaming firms have a reputation for innovation, but many of the games they develop are sold by foreign-owned software publishers. Interactive leisure software and Software and computer services are added together in the surveys due to their similarities and merging. Software/Electronic Publishing is one of the groups it generates £560 million, 0.04% of the UK’s GVA. It employs 23,282 across 2,090 companies. The other group is Digital & Entertainment Media it generates, a smaller amount than the other group, £400 million, 0.03% of the total GVA. 7,579 people are employed across 220 different enterprises.
The Music sector includes both live and recorded music, music publishing and the administration of music copyright. Britain excels in most forms of music, from rock and pop to classical, and its consumers spend more per head on music than almost any other country. Theatre, dance, ballet, musicals and opera performances all fall into this category. These art forms usually depend on a mix of public subsidy and private ticket sales and funding. Music and the performing arts are joined to form a single group in the surveys also due to their similarities. It generates £4 billion, 0.32% of the UK’s GVA. It employs 279,636 people. It is the highest employer of the creative industry sectors, employing 0.97% of the total population. There is 31,350 enterprises contributing to this sector.
Publishing is made up of a diverse group of industries including: Books, Directories and Mailing Lists, Journals, Magazines and Business Media, Newspapers, News Agencies and other Information Services. The widespread use of English internationally means that book publishing in particular is a globally connected industry. Publishing produces the highest GVA of £11.6 billion, 0.92% of the total GVA. It employs 241,881 people across 10,820 different enterprises.
This sector covers all public service, commercial, cable and satellite TV and radio, including the production and broadcasting of programmes. The BBC dominates the British market, but many independent companies have devised formats which have been successfully sold abroad. Television and Radio generates £5.3 billion and employs 113,124, 0.39% of the UK’s total population. There is 7,550 enterprises operating in this sector.
The government help in development and funding in different ways, they help to reduce financial difficulties or invest in a new business or help get the businesses known. The following are some examples:
Continuing to support content producers in the British creative industries, offering tax breaks and funding for film makers, television producers, animators and video game producers.
Promoting British creative industries domestically and internationally.
Supporting the growth of digital radio services and infrastructure leading to a decision on a radio switch-over.
Setting up the Creative Industries Council , to provide regular dialogue between government and industry.
Creating a local TV framework so that local TV services can be set up across the UK.
Making sure there is a new and effective independent system of self-regulation for the press.
The creative industries sector in Scotland employs 64,000 people and the total turnover of businesses operating in this area is estimated to be £4.8 billion. Scotland covers a broad variety of areas and includes a few large corporations and a number of small niche businesses. Some key industry areas include games, animation, film, television, music, design, publishing, architecture, advertising, arts and cultural businesses. Scotland’s excellent reputation in the digital media and creative industries sector has been cemented in recent years by a series of significant innovations and developments. As new media accelerates, so does the worldwide demand for new products, innovative technology and enhanced methods of delivery. Worldwide, the global entertainment and media industry is predicted to be growing at a rate of 7 percent annually, with exceptionally strong growth in the mobile/wireless, internet advertising and video games sectors. With a creative culture, strong support and a consistently strong output, for a small country Scotland holds an impressive role at the forefront of this creative revolution.
The term cultural industries refers to more local things that encourage tourism. The cultural industry works with the creative industries to create museum and gallery exhibitions. They also put on festivals of art and music.
Some examples of cultural festivals in Scotland:
The Edinburgh Festival is a collective term for many arts and cultural festivals that take place in Edinburgh, Scotland, each summer. Though the festivals are put on by various organisations unrelated to each other, and so are officially separate events, and together they form the largest annual cultural festival in the world. The original, and still one of the largest, component festivals is the Edinburgh Festival Fringe
The Glasgow Film Festival celebrates the passion the people of Glasgow have for the movies and the passion the film industry has for the City.
SURGE is an annual festival of street arts, physical theatre and circus.
Synergy is when two or more groups come together that have a common goal that will end up in producing a end product not separate pieces of work.
In the creative industries this happens all the time with many different vocational areas which need each other to work together to get the desired end result. For example when a musician creates a song they will need the song advertised, and the advertisers may need film and video sector to produce it and need software and computer services to edit it, then finally it may be put on the television or radio which includes an other sector. All these sectors working together to produce a unified end result.
The formal origins of the concept of creative industries can be found in the decision in 1997 by the newly elected British Labour government headed by Tony Blair to establish a Creative Industries Task Force (CITF), as a central activity of its new Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS). The Creative Industries Task Force set about mapping current activity in those sectors deemed to be a part of the UK creative industries, measuring their contribution to Britain’s overall economic performance and identifying policy measures that would promote their further development. The Creative Industries Mapping Document, produced by the UK DCMS in 1998, identified the creative industries as constituting a large and growing component of the UK economy, employing 1.4 million people and generating an estimated £60 billion a year in economic value added, or about 5 per cent of total UK national income (DCMS, 1998). In some parts of Britain, such as London, the contribution of the creative industries was even greater, accounting directly or indirectly for about 500,000 jobs and for one in every five new jobs created, and an estimated £21 billion in economic value added, making creative industries London’s second largest economic sector after financial and business services. The UK Creative Industries Mapping Document defined the creative industries as ‘those activities which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent and which have the potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property’ (DCMS, 1998).
I have chosen the game industry as my vocational area. The biggest issue facing this area is the cost of creating a game. If the game is successful then this isn’t a problem, but some games don’t do as well which will cause the company to have major setbacks and future funding problems. Another issue is creating something brand new that the consumers will like. Coming up with new ideas is difficult and creating a new IP is expensive so if the game doesn’t do well then the company will be facing the issues I previously mentioned.
Producer, Reloaded Productions
“It is very hard to create compelling interactive experiences. Too often we developers get lost in fancy explosions and good looking graphics, and forget that at the core we need to give users fantastic game mechanics first. Pong, Asteroids, Pac Man, Space Invaders and Centipede are great games. Not the greatest graphics, but clearly killer gameplay. So especially in the MMO world, it’s incredibly hard to create that level of simple, engaging game activity, and doing so using a fresh angle.”
Co-founder at Sucker Punch
“What is the biggest challenge? I think the biggest challenge is making new IP, and that’s because it’s risky and expensive. So as a result, people don’t like doing risky, or expensive things.”
The project was to consist of two pieces of work, an ebook and another piece of media, in my case a video, that was to focus on some aspect of Andrew Carnegie. For the ebook I was in a group with two other people (Adin and Taylor). We all done different parts of the project, Adin and Taylor wrote the story up, Adin also took pictures and I done the style sheet as well as suggesting the font and colors that we used. We all contributed research for the content of the book. The videos were done separately but with the same theme (the life of Andrew Carnegie), footage and information (some images that we used were the same as well). I created the video in Adobe Premiere Pro, I also used Adobe Photoshop to create the backgrounds and cut pictures.