Creative Industries Research (LO3)

Activity 1 – Impact of technology and technical developments

Game companies are on the cusp of unlocking the true potential of the Internet for video games. The way we play games will be completely different, again, just two or three years from now. You can play high-definition games through the Internet, there are very successful companies that let you play console-quality games through what is essentially a web browser, cloud-based gaming service. The gameplay experience of internet gaming is comparable — even a little better — than playing the game on a console or on a high-powered PC. You get the added bonus of being able to play those games on any Internet-enabled device.

Games are dirt cheap

Back when the Super Nintendo, Playstation and other home consoles dominated gaming, video games would cost anywhere from $40 to $60. Nowadays, you’re likely to get pretty angry if a game on the Apple App Store costs more than $1. Bite-sized game prices on the Apple App Store, and subsequently other online stores, have attracted a whole new breed of buyer that is willing to pay a few bucks for a game. And just because it’s cheap doesn’t mean it’s a terrible game. A game on a smartphone has graphics rivaling recent consoles.

You play with your friends over the web

Nowadays, gamers don’t even play against each other at the same time. Playing a multiplayer game usually meant inviting friends over and beating up each other in a quick round of Smash Bros. Now you can play against your friends — and people you didn’t even know — at the same time through the Internet.

Many online games today are asynchronous — meaning gamers play whenever they get a chance, even if their opponent isn’t playing, and are still competing against other players.

Games work in both bite-sized chunks and hour-long sessions

Zynga’s players log into FarmVille and CityVille for only minutes at a time.

That’s a pretty drastic change from a few years ago, when even shorter play sessions would still be upwards of 20 minutes. Play sessions could be as long as 10 hours for bigger online games.

Those kinds of play sessions still exist, because traditional games persist and they demand longer attention spans. But companies like Zynga are able to attract millions of players (Zynga has 277 million alone) with bite-sized play sessions.

Touch- and gesture-based controls dominate the gaming space

Everyone thought the Nintendo DS was a wacky piece of hardware — it had two screens, and the bottom screen was a touch screen.

Fast forward a half-decade and every home console features some kind of touch or gesture-based control scheme. Nearly all modern smartphone games have touch-based controls.

You can play 3D games without glasses

The Nintendo DS changed mobile gaming by introducing touch-based controls and two screens. Nintendo did it again with the next version of its console, which has a 3D display that you don’t even have to use glasses to view.

The Nintendo 3DS screen uses what’s called a parallax barrier, which tricks your eyes into seeing specific pixels. Your right eye sees a specific image while your left eye sees a different one, and it gives off the illusion of a 3D image.

The technology is still in its infancy, but it shows a ton of promise and is the first major leap forward in displays in gaming since high-definition displays were finally affordable.

Most modern top titles are designed to be cinematic thrill rides

It’s rare these days that the most popular games do something incredibly innovative with graphics or controls or have a really unique gameplay mechanism.

Instead, the best-selling games are highly-polished cinematic thrill-rides that take you on an emotional rollercoaster and never let you take a breath. Franchises like Mass Effect, Call of Duty and Assassin’s Creed all set the standard with absolutely gorgeous graphics, incredible storytelling and superb voice acting.

The cartridge and disc are on their way out

Valve, the makers of first-person shooting games Counter Strike and Half-Life, shook things up once again in 2003 when it released digital distribution service Steam.

Steam ushered in a new era where game discs are increasingly less relevant and most players just download a game directly from the Internet. You can even download games on home consoles like the Xbox 360 instead of buying a hard copy of a game (though the hard copy is still the more popular option for consoles).

Digital distribution became even more popular when App Stores came out and made it even easier to get games. Electronic Arts launched its own high-profile game digital distribution service called Origin. Discs and hard copies of games are basically over.

You can make a game on a tiny budget

It’s easier than ever to create a game that will go on and make millions. Take Doodle Jump, for example. Igor Pusenjak and his brother Marko built the game and it took the Apple App Store by storm, becoming one of the most popular paid apps. Since then, gamers have downloaded Doodle Jump more than 8.5 million times.

The lower barriers to entry mean developers can experiment with more innovative and creative games. If it isn’t successful, they can quickly start developing a new game for a small cost and try again and again.

Then there’s indie sensation Minecraft, which has been downloaded more than 10 million times. Developer Markus Persson doesn’t have a publisher and relied on viral channels to promote the game, and it’s a runaway success. Mojang Studios, the game developer behind Minecraft, also launched an iPhone app for the game.

http://www.businessinsider.com/10-ways-modern-technology-has-changed-video-games-forever-in-just-five-years-2011-11#speaking-of-game-changers-there-are-some-sweet-gadgets-out-there-10

Activity 2 – Legal and statutory controls

Software licensing

A typical software license grants an end-user permission to use one or more copies of software in ways where such a use would otherwise potentially constitute copyright infringement of the software owner’s exclusive rights under copyright law.

In addition to granting rights and imposing restrictions on the use of software, software licenses typically contain provisions which allocate liability and responsibility between the parties entering into the license agreement. In enterprise and commercial software transactions these terms, such as limitations of liability, warranties and warranty disclaimers, and indemnity if the software infringes intellectual property rights of others.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_license

Copyright laws and practice

Copyright protects artistic and literary expression. It covers a broad variety of creative expression from email, to websites, to video games.

Generally speaking in games, the underlying code is protected as a literary work, and the artwork and sound are protected as an audiovisual work. While you don’t need to have the work (ie your video game) registered to be covered by copyright law, there are advantages to registration.

Certain artwork in video games falls under the doctrine of scenes a faire. This references particular artwork and elements of a videogame that are necessary to execute a particular idea and are NOT copyrightable. That includes things like the scoring system, the lives, the coins, and the sky/ground. Scenes a faire also applies to certain genres of games. For example, if you have a golfing game, you would include certain design elements like holes, golf balls, golf clubs, golfers, grass, trees, and water.  While you can’t copy these elements verbatim from another golfing game, you have the right to include such elements in your game because otherwise no one else could create a golfing game.

Intellectual Property rights (IP)

One of the biggest factors contributing to this is that many game developers do not develop comprehensive strategies for protecting the valuable intellectual property that they create. This is generally due to several reasons. One is that historically intellectual property just not been a big focus for many in the industry. The other is that many people are not aware of the range of options available for protecting IP in the game space and what aspects of games are protectable. This often is due to some common misunderstandings about intellectual property, particularly with respect to the patentability of game features.

While it is true that one can not protect the “idea” for a game, this does not end the inquiry. Many aspects of games are protectable by patents, copyright and trademarks. Of these, patents are probably the most overlooked and least understood. While this applies to all types of games, there are particularly compelling opportunities to patent many of the innovative aspects of social and online games. This is due in part to the many recent developments in the relevant technology and business models for these games. Prudent developers and publishers will seize these opportunities to develop a comprehensive IP protection strategy.

Overview of Forms of IP Protection

Games are basically software and content running on a platform. Other applications of software and technology platforms are patentable and are frequently patented. The patentability of software and technology platforms does not change just because the application is a game. Yet, many game developers overlook this and forego patent protection. Additionally, the content, source code and other creative aspects of a game can be protected by copyright. The name and other brand elements of a game can be protected by trademark.

http://www.pillsburylaw.com/siteFiles/Publications/IPProtectionforGamesBrochure2011.pdf

Tax and national insurance

Chancellor George Osborne said he planned to introduce corporation tax relief from April 2013 for the video games, animation and high-end television industries. The industry has lobbied for such changes for several years. The chancellor said he wanted to make the UK the technology centre of Europe.

Mr Wilson predicted that tax relief for the video games sector should generate and safeguard 4,661 direct and indirect jobs, offer £188m in investment expenditure by studios, increase the games development sector’s contribution to UK GDP by £283m and generate £172m for the Treasury.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-17464478

Activity 3 – Health and Safety

 There are six main obligations on employers

 The Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 set out six main obligations on employers of those who work with display screen equipment.

 • analyse workstations and reduce health and safety risks

• ensure workstations meet minimum ergonomic requirements

• provide information about risks and measures

• plan daily work routine for users

• offer eye tests and special glasses if necessary

• provide health and safety training

 The Regulations only apply where there are ‘users’ or ‘operators’. Although both these terms are common in the computer industry, the Health and Safety Executive has chosen to give them specific meanings under the Regulations. A ‘user’, in terms of the Regulations, is an employee who habitually uses display screen equipment as a significant part of his normal work. Some of the employer’s responsibilities extend to users employed by others (eg Temp agency staff) who are working on the employer’s premises or equipment.

 The Regulations also apply to the self-employed. An ‘operator’ in terms of the Regulations, is any self-employed person who habitually uses display screen equipment as a significant part of his normal work. As a self employed person, some of the obligations are their own responsibility e.g. training. However, other responsibilities fall on the employer who has hired them for display screen work.

 http://www.system-concepts.com/assets/files/Guide_to_Display_Screen_Regulations.pdf

There are health problems associated with working with computers, which include repetitive strain injury, eye strain, back pain and stress.

Risk assessment

The regulations require employers to carry out a risk assessment of users’ workstations, which should consider the entire workstation, including equipment and furniture, as well as the work environment, eg lighting, temperature and leg room. The tasks that are being performed at the workstation should be considered as should any special needs of individual staff.

Display screen equipment (DSE) risk assessments should also consider those factors that may contribute to repetitive strain injuries such as:

  • sitting in the same position for a long period

  • awkward positioning of the wrist and hand in relation to the keyboard

  • high workload for a prolonged period of time

  • excessive use of the mouse.

Checklist for workstations

The DSE Regulations detail the minimum standards for workstations, which are summarised below.

The display screen

This should:

  • display well-defined characters of adequate size and spacing

  • have a stable image

  • have easily adjustable brightness and contrast

  • tilt and swivel easily to suit the user

  • be free from glare and reflections

  • use a separate base for the screen, or an adjustable table.

The keyboard

This should:

  • be tiltable and separate from the screen to allow the user to adopt a comfortable working position

  • have a space in front to provide support for the hands or arms of the user

  • have a matt surface

  • have clearly legible symbols on the keys.

The work surface

The work surface should:

  • provide adequate space for the user

  • have a low reflective surface

  • be of adequate size to allow the screen, keyboard, etc to be flexibly arranged

  • have a stable, adjustment document holder, which should be at the same level as the screen and at the same viewing distance.

The work chair

This should have a seat that is adjustable in height, with a seat back adjustable in height and tilt. A footrest should be available.

The workstation/environment

The workstation must do the following:

  • provide sufficient space for the user or the operator to alter position comfortably

  • lighting must be adequate with suitable contrast between the screen and background

  • glare and reflections on the screen should be avoided

  • windows should be fitted with adjustable coverings to alter the daylight level.

When a workstation is shared by more than one person, it should be assessed in respect of each person.

Training in using computers

Employers are obliged to provide information and training on the health and safety aspects of working with computers. This should cover:

  • the importance of good posture, changing position and good keyboard technique

  • how to avoid glare or bright reflections in the screen

  • cleaning and adjusting the screen

  • the importance of frequent short breaks

  • using a mouse

  • health risks

  • who to report symptoms to or to contact for help

  • information about the right to eyesight tests.

Eye tests

Under the regulations, users have a right to eye sight tests upon starting computer work and at regular intervals thereafter, at the employer’s expense. Where tests show that the user requires special spectacles/lenses for computer work, the employer must pay for the cost of a basic pair.

Laptop computers

The work of laptop users should be properly assessed. As some laptops can be heavy, the assessment ought to include the risk of manual handling (ie lifting and carrying).

Laptops should be used in proper workstations and not on one’s lap, especially if large amounts of data need to be inputted. As prolonged use is likely to cause ergonomic problems, it is even more important for users to take regular breaks, position themselves correctly, flex their arms, etc.

http://www.atl.org.uk/health-and-safety/work-environment/computers.asp

Activity 4 – Business & Financial Support

Grants and loans

Scottish Enterprise would be a great place to get a grant from as they already support one of the largest video game based companies in Scotland and that is Rockstar North “the internationally recognized video game development studio based in Edinburgh”, has been awarded an R&D Grant. The grant of just over £1 million is a 15 percent contribution towards an £8 million R&D project, and has, to date, created 25 new high value jobs in the Edinburgh and Scottish video game sector”. Since a massive, successful company like Rockstar is partly funded by this grant it is safe to presume that it would be a good place to receive some help when starting a business.

http://www.scottish-enterprise.com/resources/case-studies/pqr/rockstar-north.aspx

IDEAScotland is a business accelerator programme designed to help start-up digital economy entrepreneurs of any background or experience attract valuable investment to build a sustainable and profitable business. The programme is sponsored and run by DC Thomson, brightsolid, the University of Abertay Dundee and the University of Dundee.

http://www.idea-scotland.co.uk/

Activity 5 – Unions, services, professional associations

The Scottish Games Network (SGN)

“ The Scottish Games Network now offers a single unified and strategic contact point for Scotland’s diverse games sector, as well as opening the sector up to the wider cultural and creative industries, both nationally and globally. The Scottish Games Network is open to every company and organisation involved in the video games and interactive industries. Not simply developers, but technology companies, animation specialists, audio companies, publishers, retailers, media, freelance staff, contractors, academic institutions and the government.”

“The organisation pro-actively identifies new projects and opportunities to enable the games sector to grow, evolve and prosper, moving beyond advocacy and representation to pull together the individuals, companies and organisations across the country, providing strategic insight, research, create new opportunities and organise events”. They are looking to find new projects and opportunities to showcase to others so that the gaming sector will grow. This is needed for the smaller companies/ people in Scotland who are doing amazing things but are not getting noticed, it will shine a light on their talents.

http://scottishgames.net/2013/10/07/the-scottish-games-network-launches-as-scotlands-video-games-industry-body

Jobs in the Games Industry (LO2)

Job 1 – LINK

Company – Crytek

Job Title – Level Designer

Location – Crytek UK, Nottingham

Salary – Not Specified

Job Description – They are looking for industry leading Level Designers to join the team. Working on both single and multiplayer experiences the successful candidate will become a key member of a creative group looking to shape the next wave of exciting triple-A first-person shooters.

Responsibilities

  • Take ownership of a level and develop it from concept through to final

  • Use provided systems to craft compelling gameplay experiences

  • Create level and gameplay logic through use of visual scripting language

  • Work closely with the narrative team to incorporate story beats and cutscene requirements

  • Produce and maintain supporting documentation

  • Collaborate with other disciplines to produce the final gameplay and story experience

Required

  • Experience using industry standard level design tools such as CryENGINE Sandbox, UDK or Hammer

  • Expertise in combat and layout design

  • Deep understanding of game mechanics with ability to combine existing elements to create depth of gameplay

  • Previously shipped AAA titles and/or exceptional quality portfolio

  • Ability to design levels which are sympathetic to art composition

Preferred

  • Previous experience of building levels in CryENGINE Sandbox

  • Prior knowledge of visual scripting using CryENGINE Flow Graph

  • Demo / video examples of a level or gameplay sequence created using CryENGINE

Crytek is a German video game company, founded in 1999 by brothers Cevat, Avni and Faruk Yerli. Crytek’s main headquarters are in Frankfurt, with eight other studios in Kiev, Budapest, Nottingham, Sofia, Seoul, Shanghai, Istanbul and Austin. Crytek has partnerships with Electronic Arts, Ubisoft, NVIDIA, Intel, AMD, FMOD,Scaleform, Xoreax Software, Sparkasse Coburg, and Rating Services. Crytek’s most notable series of AAA games is Crysis. The series consists of 5 games; Crysis, Crysis Warhead (standalone expansion), Crysis Wars (multiplayer), Crysis 2 and Crysis 3. They also developed the first game in the Farcry series. All these games were created using their advanced CryEngine.

Job 2 – LINK

Company – Ubisoft, Massive

Job Title – Level Designer

Location – Malmö, Sweden

Salary – Not Specified

Job Description – Massive is looking for an experienced Level Designer to join an international team working on Tom Clancy’s The Division. In this position you will design and build the best gameplay experiences within the growing team of a large and exciting project. As a Level Designer at Massive, you will work closely with Level Artists to ensure an entertaining and beautiful game, where your job is to create high quality gameplay. Additionally, you will be working in close collaboration with the Lead Designer and Game Designers to define core game mechanics.

Responsibilities

  • Design and build best-in-class gameplay scenarios

  • Guide a pod of Level Designers and Artists to take your scenarios from concept to final polish

  • Create level design that supports and enhances core mechanics

  • Collaborate with Game Designers to tweak and define enemy behaviors

  • Work together with Level Artists to ensure a beautiful game where form follows function

Required 

  • A solid understanding of player psychology

  • 3+ years of industry or other relevant experience

  • Worked as Level Designer on at least one released AAA title

  • Experience using game-specific editing packages such as UnrealEd, CryEngine, Hammer, etc.

  • Game scripting experience using Kismet, Lua or similar

  • Experience developing third-person action games

  • Extremely quality oriented

  • Strong communication skills

Additional skills

  • Experience working with iterative development and quick iterations

  • Experience working on an online multiplayer, co-operative or open-world game project

  • Experience using commercial 3D applications such as Maya or 3DS Max

  • Experience developing RPGs

  • Experience from other creative ventures (e.g. music, art, writing)

Massive Entertainment, a fully owned Ubisoft Entertainment studio, is a premier producer of games and interactive entertainment for the global market. The studio has more than 250 passionate game developers working on several major titles of different genres. They take pride in their games and so far they have had great success with best selling games like World in Conflict, Assassin’s Creed Revelations and Far Cry 3. These titles have positioned the company as one of the most prominent development studios in the world.

Job 3 – LINK

Company – Kwalee

Job Title – Level Designer

Location – Leamington Spa, Warwickshire

Salary – Depending on Experience

Job Description – Kwalee are seeking an experienced Games Level Designer to work on a 3 month contract. This position will be working within the development department and be responsible for designing levels for an action shooting game to be released on mobile devices.

Required

  • A minimum of 2 years games level design / editing experience.

  • A proven track record of designing high quality and innovative games.

  • A creative mindset.

  • Be willing to work to tight deadlines within a small development team.

  • Experience of building levels in Unity, Unreal, Hammer or similar world editing software.

  • Specific experience with Unity 3D

  • A basic understanding of programming.

Kwalee Ltd is a developer and publisher of mobile games. It was founded in 2011 by David Darling who originally co-founded Codemasters in 1986. They seek to excite and entertain their customers with innovative new games that provide incredible experiences.

Creative Industries Research (LO1)

The term creative industries refers to the economic potential of activities that trade with creativity, knowledge and information. Governments and creative sectors across the world are increasingly recognising its importance as a generator of jobs, wealth and cultural engagement. At the heart of the creative economy are the cultural and creative industries that lie at the crossroads of arts, culture, business and technology. What unifies these activities is the fact that they all trade with creative assets in the form of intellectual property (IP); the framework through which creativity translates into economic value. The UK has the largest creative sector of the European Union. In terms of GDP it is the largest in the world.

Our creative industries are a real success story. They are worth more than £36 billion a year; they generate £70,000 every minute for the UK economy; and they employ 1.5 million people in the UK. According to industry figures, the creative industries account for around £1 in every £10 of the UK’s exports.

The 13 Sectors of the creative industry

1. Advertising

2. Architecture

3. Art and antiques

4. Crafts

5. Design

6. Designer fashion

7. Film, video and photography

8. Interactive leisure software

9. Music

10. The performing arts

11. Publishing

12. Software and computer services

13. Television and radio

Advertising ranges from creative agencies to sales departments. It is a sector which leads the way with cross-platform innovation as campaigns cross boundaries between TV, radio, print, billboard and interactive media. There are five main departments that advertising falls into Account Services, Creatives, Production, Media and Other Services. Advertising keeps 13,930 companies operating and almost 252,022 individuals (0.87% of the total population) working. The advertising sector is really important to the UK’s economy, as it generates £5.9 billion annually. This is 0.48% of the UK’s total GVA.

Like many creative industries, the architecture sector is made up of a handful of big firms and a very large number of small ones. The sector’s fortunes are closely linked to those of the construction industry. A number of British architects have achieved international reputations. Architecture generates £3.3 billion, 0.26% of the total GVA. It employs 136,534 people, 0.47% of the population. There is 11,320 creative enterprises in the architecture sector.

The Art and antiques sector includes dealers and auctioneers of antique jewellery, paintings, sculpture, furniture, maps, drawings and prints. In Britain, most such businesses are small but some are internationally important. £260 million is generated by this sector, 0.02% of the UK’s GVA. 10,351 people are employed by it and 2760 companies are within it.

Crafts includes work with textiles, ceramics, wood, metal, glass, graphic and leather. Businesses in this field are mostly tiny: 75% are sole traders. Crafts employs 84,224 individuals in the UK, 0.29% of the total population. The businesses in this sector are too small to be picked up in surveys so the amount this sector generates is unknown.

The Design sector is hard to assess as much of it is hidden within other industries. 70% of British design companies were active abroad. Design generates £1.7 billion, 0.14% of the UK’s total GVA. 209,045 people are employed by this sector. There is 13,600 companies contributing to the design sector.

Designer fashion is a relatively small sector, but is highly integrated into the international market – even small fashion businesses look to export their products. The fashion and textiles footprint covers the whole of the supply chain. This is highly complex. It encompasses raw material supply, through all processing stages, to finished goods – as well as ancillary functions such as design, trading, wholesaling, converting and support services. Designer fashion generates the lowest amount in the creative industries, £120 million which is 0.01% of the UK’s total GVA. This sector provides jobs for 18,409 individuals across 900 different companies.

Film, video and Photography produces £3 billion. The UK has a number of successful home-grown producers, but the Hollywood studios dominate the British market. The number of films produced in Britain, and their box-office returns, fluctuates considerably from year to year. The film industry is seen as six different component parts: Development, Production, Facilities, Distribution, Exhibition and Export. Photo imaging is broadly divided into the following categories: Image producers, Photo retail, Picture libraries and agencies, Manufacturers and Support services. It provides 67,250 people with jobs, 0.23% of the UK’s total population. 10,150 companies provide for this sector.

 The Interactive leisure software sector principally consists of computer and video games, but also includes some educational and reference material. British gaming firms have a reputation for innovation, but many of the games they develop are sold by foreign-owned software publishers. Interactive leisure software and Software and computer services are added together in the surveys due to their similarities and merging. Software/Electronic Publishing is one of the groups it generates £560 million, 0.04% of the UK’s GVA. It employs 23,282 across 2,090 companies. The other group is Digital & Entertainment Media it generates, a smaller amount than the other group, £400 million, 0.03% of the total GVA. 7,579 people are employed across 220 different enterprises.

The Music sector includes both live and recorded music, music publishing and the administration of music copyright. Britain excels in most forms of music, from rock and pop to classical, and its consumers spend more per head on music than almost any other country. Theatre, dance, ballet, musicals and opera performances all fall into this category. These art forms usually depend on a mix of public subsidy and private ticket sales and funding. Music and the performing arts are joined to form a single group in the surveys also due to their similarities. It generates £4 billion, 0.32% of the UK’s GVA. It employs 279,636 people. It is the highest employer of the creative industry sectors, employing 0.97% of the total population. There is 31,350 enterprises contributing to this sector.

Publishing is made up of a diverse group of industries including: Books, Directories and Mailing Lists, Journals, Magazines and Business Media, Newspapers, News Agencies and other Information Services. The widespread use of English internationally means that book publishing in particular is a globally connected industry. Publishing produces the highest GVA of £11.6 billion, 0.92% of the total GVA. It employs 241,881 people across 10,820 different enterprises.

This sector covers all public service, commercial, cable and satellite TV and radio, including the production and broadcasting of programmes. The BBC dominates the British market, but many independent companies have devised formats which have been successfully sold abroad. Television and Radio generates £5.3 billion and employs 113,124, 0.39% of the UK’s total population. There is 7,550 enterprises operating in this sector.

The government help in development and funding in different ways, they help to reduce financial difficulties or invest in a new business or help get the businesses known. The following are some examples:

Continuing to support content producers in the British creative industries, offering tax breaks and funding for film makers, television producers, animators and video game producers.

Promoting British creative industries domestically and internationally.

Supporting the growth of digital radio services and infrastructure leading to a decision on a radio switch-over.

Setting up the Creative Industries Council , to provide regular dialogue between government and industry.

Creating a local TV framework so that local TV services can be set up across the UK.

Making sure there is a new and effective independent system of self-regulation for the press.

The creative industries sector in Scotland employs 64,000 people and the total turnover of businesses operating in this area is estimated to be £4.8 billion. Scotland covers a broad variety of areas and includes a few large corporations and a number of small niche businesses. Some key industry areas include games, animation, film, television, music, design, publishing, architecture, advertising, arts and cultural businesses. Scotland’s excellent reputation in the digital media and creative industries sector has been cemented in recent years by a series of significant innovations and developments. As new media accelerates, so does the worldwide demand for new products, innovative technology and enhanced methods of delivery. Worldwide, the global entertainment and media industry is predicted to be growing at a rate of 7 percent annually, with exceptionally strong growth in the mobile/wireless, internet advertising and video games sectors. With a creative culture, strong support and a consistently strong output, for a small country Scotland holds an impressive role at the forefront of this creative revolution.

SOURCES

https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/77959/Creative-Industries-Economic-Estimates-Report-2011-update.pdf

http://www.creativeskillset.org/research/overview/industries/

http://www.britishcouncil.org/mapping_the_creative_industries_a_toolkit_2-2.pdf

http://www.sdi.co.uk/sectors/creative-industries.aspx

The term cultural industries refers to more local things that encourage tourism. The cultural industry works with the creative industries to create museum and gallery exhibitions. They also put on festivals of art and music.

Some examples of cultural festivals in Scotland:

The Edinburgh Festival is a collective term for many arts and cultural festivals that take place in Edinburgh, Scotland, each summer. Though the festivals are put on by various organisations unrelated to each other, and so are officially separate events, and together they form the largest annual cultural festival in the world. The original, and still one of the largest, component festivals is the Edinburgh Festival Fringe

The Glasgow Film Festival celebrates the passion the people of Glasgow have for the movies and the passion the film industry has for the City.

SURGE is an annual festival of street arts, physical theatre and circus.

Synergy is when two or more groups come together that have a common goal that will end up in producing a end product not separate pieces of work.

In the creative industries this happens all the time with many different vocational areas which need each other to work together to get the desired end result. For example when a musician creates a song they will need the song advertised, and the advertisers may need film and video sector to produce it and need software and computer services to edit it, then finally it may be put on the television or radio which includes an other sector. All these sectors working together to produce a unified end result.

SOURCES

http://nknu.pbworks.com/f/A%C2%A0CRITIQUE%C2%A0OF%C2%A0DEFINITIONS%C2%A0OF%C2%A0THE%20CREATIVE%20INDUSTRIES.pdf

The formal origins of the concept of creative industries can be found in the decision in 1997 by the newly elected British Labour government headed by Tony Blair to establish a Creative Industries Task Force (CITF), as a central activity of its new Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS). The Creative Industries Task Force set about mapping current activity in those sectors deemed to be a part of the UK creative industries, measuring their contribution to Britain’s overall economic performance and identifying policy measures that would promote their further development. The Creative Industries Mapping Document, produced by the UK DCMS in 1998, identified the creative industries as constituting a large and growing component of the UK economy, employing 1.4 million people and generating an estimated £60 billion a year in economic value added, or about 5 per cent of total UK national income (DCMS, 1998). In some parts of Britain, such as London, the contribution of the creative industries was even greater, accounting directly or indirectly for about 500,000 jobs and for one in every five new jobs created, and an estimated £21 billion in economic value added, making creative industries London’s second largest economic sector after financial and business services. The UK Creative Industries Mapping Document defined the creative industries as ‘those activities which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent and which have the potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property’ (DCMS, 1998).

SOURCES

http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/42872_Flew.pdf

I have chosen the game industry as my vocational area. The biggest issue facing this area is the cost of creating a game. If the game is successful then this isn’t a problem, but some games don’t do as well which will cause the company to have major setbacks and future funding problems. Another issue is creating something brand new that the consumers will like. Coming up with new ideas is difficult and creating a new IP is expensive so if the game doesn’t do well then the company will be facing the issues I previously mentioned.

Jon-Enée Merriex

Producer, Reloaded Productions

“It is very hard to create compelling interactive experiences. Too often we developers get lost in fancy explosions and good looking graphics, and forget that at the core we need to give users fantastic game mechanics first. Pong, Asteroids, Pac Man, Space Invaders and Centipede are great games. Not the greatest graphics, but clearly killer gameplay. So especially in the MMO world, it’s incredibly hard to create that level of simple, engaging game activity, and doing so using a fresh angle.”

Chris Zimmerman

Co-founder at Sucker Punch

“What is the biggest challenge? I think the biggest challenge is making new IP, and that’s because it’s risky and expensive. So as a result, people don’t like doing risky, or expensive things.”

SOURCES

http://www.nowgamer.com/features/983293/the_biggest_problem_facing_the_games_industry_today.html